All Humanity From Two Original People
The Critics who do not understand the Young Earth Creation Model, attack it in this way. They say that if Eve was created from Adam, she would be an identical twin and inbreeding would have never allowed multi-generational survival. You cannot put two people or two animals on an island and expect them to repopulate it via inbreeding without problems and where did Cain find his wife?
Real world examples actually prove this wrong. But before I provide that evidence let’s tackle the other critic’s argument.
Those that do know the model do not use that above argument, instead they try and use the argument that because there were only four sets of chromosomes in Eden, all variants would have had an initial frequency of either 25%, 50%, or 75%. And since today, most allelic variants have frequencies in the range of 0–10%, then this proves we could not have come from just 2 people. This logical fails.
Dr. John Sanford, Dr. Rob Carter and Dr. John Baumgardner has actually run the numbers and the simulation proves that allelic variation could have easily come from just two people in the recent past.
Why would Adam and Eve have Heterogeneous genomes? You really wouldn't expect a creation that is biological to be formed empty without the ability to have genetic diversity would you? I mean it's like saying, why didn't God not create Adam only homozygous with 1 allele option? Well because that would be a disaster obviously. Since Adam was created with genetic diversity built in (remember God told Adam be fruitful and multiply) then how much diversity had to be built-in to Adam? The first human couple could have been designed with millions of variable genetic sites because God obviously knew they would have to intermarry to populate and fill the World in the beginning since that was his very command to do.
Traditionally it has been assumed that genetic variation only comes from mutations, giving rise to mutational variants (“mutational alleles”). However, given a miraculous creation, there could be a very different class of created variants (“designed alleles”). Mutational alleles and designed alleles would be different in several important respects. Mutational alleles need time to accumulate, while designed alleles can exist from the beginning. Mutational alleles are essentially random typographical errors in the genome and so are typically harmful, while designed alleles would logically be created to be beneficial. While mutational alleles always arise in a population as a single isolated copy, designed alleles would logically be created at higher frequencies.
It is widely understood that a mutational allele arises as a single copy – which is, therefore, on the verge of its own extinction. When a new mutation enters a population, its frequency is just one copy in a population of 2n (with n being the population’s size). Therefore, most mutational alleles are rapidly lost due to genetic drift within just a few generations (Rupe and Sanford 2013). While mutational alleles are typically very rare, designed alleles would typically be expected to be abundant, in accord with the nature of their function, and in accord with their initially designed frequencies.
The smallest possible unit of genetic variation involves a single letter difference in the genome. Population geneticists call these single nucleotide variants (SNVs). If the minor allele is found at a frequency greater than 1%, such a variant allele is also called a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). For simplicity, and in keeping with the final report from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000 Genomes 2015), we will use the term “SNP” for all single nucleotide variations, regardless of their allelic frequency.The 1000 Genomes Project detected 84 million SNPs within the human population (1000 Genomes 2015). The vast majority of these are very rare alleles (about 64 million of the observed SNPs had allele frequencies of less than 0.5%). However, this is still a serious underestimate of how many rare human alleles exist. Given our current population size and mutation rate, every nucleotide site in the human genome should mutate many times every generation somewhere on this planet. Therefore, the number of existing SNPs should be roughly the size of the genome (3 billion). But most of these variants are so rare that they are not detectable, due to limited sampling size. Most rare human alleles are unique to a single people group or sub-population. This indicates that most of these rare variants have arisen via mutation in the relatively recent past.
Excluding rare alleles, a large fraction of currently observed human genetic diversity might have arisen from designed genetic variants that were built into Adam and Eve when they were first created "The Designed Diversity Model" (Sanford and Carter) & The Created Heterozygosity Model (Dr. Jeanson). The latest analysis of the human genome (1000 Genomes 2015), indicates that there are only 8 million SNPs with allele frequencies of 5% or more. In our model most of these common alleles could be designed alleles.
The average person living today carries 4–5 million SNP alleles (Levy et al. 2007). Therefore, a single human today accounts for a large fraction (approximately 30%) of all common genetic variation (Carter 2018). The African people groups tend to have slightly higher rates of polymorphism (Gurdasani et al. 2014; 1000 Genomes 2015). Since there are only about 8 million common SNPs in the human population, and since most of the SNPs in a single person are common SNPs,this means that any given person carries a very significant percentage of all the common genetic variants found across the world (Carter 2018). A single modern couple should carry most of the 8 million common SNPs that are ubiquitous in the human population. Obviously, the genomes of Adam and Eve could have contained this amount of diversity and much more (Sanford and Carter 2015a, 2015b). Some fraction of the pre-Flood genetic diversity would be lost due to the genetic bottleneck of the biblical Flood. However, population geneticists have known for decades that even the most extreme bottleneck (i.e., two people) can capture a significant amount of a population’s pre-bottleneck diversity, assuming the bottleneck only lasts for one or just a few generations and is followed by rapid population re-growth (Nei et al. 1975). This has also been demonstrated using computer simulation. Therefore, there is no problem with the Flood scenario in terms of preserving most of the originally designed variants, even though there would be some loss of diversity.
For example, if Noah’s three daughters-in-law were distantly related, the Ark-borne population could have carried up to 80% of the pre-Flood diversity (Carter and Powell 2016). Even in a worst-case scenario (where Shem, Ham and Japheth married their sisters), nearly 60% of the pre-Flood diversity would still have been retained (Carter 2018). Thus, while some created diversity would be lost at the Flood, Noah’s family could have easily carried millions of polymorphic alleles.
In addition to the 8 million common alleles (most of which may be designed alleles), the 1000 Genomes Project identified another 64 million rare SNPs (most of which can be assumed to be mutational alleles). How many generations would it take for 64 million mutations to accumulate? Given a mutation rate of roughly 100 mutations per person per generation, and assuming our current population of over 7 billion people, it would require less than one generation to accumulate 64 million mutations in the human population. Even for a human population of just 10,000, it would only take about 80 generations. While most new mutational alleles usually drift out of a population, the rate of loss of mutational alleles would be greatly reduced in a population that is continuously growing rapidly. In light of all this, the blanket claim, “There is no way Adam and Eve could have given rise to so much diversity,” is not reasonable.
FOR A TECHNICAL ANSWER TO "Adam and Eve could not possibly account for the specific patterns of allele frequencies that we see in the modern human population.” Make sure to check out the simulation run in the study below.
Also be sure to see Henry Dalcke's work on the subject = https://bit.ly/3fCrn1r
You can learn about variation potential found in the human race.
Here's the link to his website, you will need translator for its in German: www.kreationeum.deRegarding examples of 2 animals left on an island and doing just fine would be In 1957 a single pair of Mouflon sheep were left on one of the Kerguelen islands near the Antarctic circle. In 1977 when they had returned, the number had grown to 700 sheep! https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1766376/ That's just 20 years stuck on a small island and male sheep are nomadic travelers by nature, so the conditions were not even suitable for them! Given that the population began with only two individuals, has experienced cyclical changes in the population size, and was isolated on an island, the researchers (because of their belief in Evolution) predicted this would not have occurred, yet it did. This is just 1 of many examples of their utter failure to grasp that something outside of the theory of evolution is true, even when confronted with real-world outcomes that defy the theory and portray the Biblical Model.
If all this is not bad enough, we have mapped Eve's sequence and since the majority allele were found in at least 90% of the individuals using over 800 available sequences. It became easy to trace and easy to verify. Given the high mutation rate within mitochondria and the large geographic separation among the individuals within their dataset, they did not expect to find the original human mitochondrial sequence to be so well preserved within modern populations. With the exception of a very few ambiguous nucleotides, the consensus sequence clearly represents Eve's mitochondrial DNA sequence. This tells us that because so little has changed in our genome that not a lot of time has passed because mutation rates of change are so rapid. So the fact we have much little change within us today with such a rapid rate of change occurring in mtDNA is total validation of YEC. Make sure to read the study here; https://bit.ly/31DfBvz
Next we must look at how we know Eve’s mitochondrial sequence.
The lack of diversity within human mtDNA worldwide with less than 83% of the mitochondrial genome invariant but in over 99% of the variable positions, the majority allele were found in at least 90% of the individuals when using over 800 available genome sequences. On average, the individuals in our dataset differed from the Eve consensus by only 21.6 nucleotides. Given the high mutation rate within mitochondria and the large geographic separation among the individuals within our dataset, we did not expect to find the original human mitochondrial sequence to be so well preserved within modern populations. With the exception of a very few ambiguous nucleotides, the consensus sequence clearly represents Eves mitochondrial DNA sequence.
So here is the thing. We have fast observable mutation rates occurring but not a lot of diversity. This unequivocally tells us that not a lot of time has passed since Eve lived. For technical information see https://bit.ly/31DfBvz
Now, was Eve a clone from Adam? No.
We see she was made from his rib, but she was considered a separate creation by God and the last of God’s created works on Day six. The reason God took Adams rib was so that we would know women are equal to men. If God chose a hair from Adam people would interpret this to mean women are above men and the head of men. If God took a toe nail then people would intrepid this to mean mean are above woman and they are beneath us.
When we look at Eve, we find that God took the rib/side (Hebrew: tsela), but built a new person—with new DNA and all just for Adam and companionship. Someone he can unite with and fill (populate) the Earth with. Iit is obvious that Eve wasn’t a clone because she was female. She had different sex chromosomes (XX) as opposed to Adam’s XY.
If she had the same DNA, they would have both been males. So, God stepped in and specially created Eve—as well as her DNA—just like he did when creating Adam and she was just as unique as Adam. This means they were both special creations and we can see this when looking at the original root words in Hebrew.
The uniqueness of her creation is reflected in the different verb used: banah (בָּנָה). This means to ‘build’, ‘construct’, and even to ‘fashion’, as befitting God’s last creative act of Creation Week.
“Build” applies to the fashioning of a structure of some importance; it involves constructive effort. Both of these factors are verbal evidence in the case of the independent creation of women. Thus, God ingrained into Adam and Eve the vast majority of information that appears in various people groups today—right from the start.
Some people next claim that its impossible that Adam and Eve could have even had enough children to have a population.
Well considered a recognized recorded number of children born to just a single mother is 69, to the first wife of Feodor Vassilyev (1707-1782) of Shuya, Russia. Between 1725 and 1765, in a total of 27 confinements, she gave birth to 16 pairs of twins, seven sets of triplets, and four sets of quadruplets. 67 of them survived infancy. Considering this is today's standard with women only able to really have kids up till 45 or so safely, yet Adam and Eve lived over 900 years. It's obviously possible many children could have come from Adam and Eve alone.
If all of this isn't bad enough for evolution, let’s really validate our genetic data with historical data shall we? We have genealogical records that if we follow back a single family line of royal blood going back to the oldest in history, what do we find? Well below is the British Kings list which shows an unbroken royalty lineage going all the way back to Adam himself.
Remember, blood lines are very important and always have been. Today we can prove relation through genetics, but before that, it was all in the details written down. This list goes through the ancestors of Queen Elizabeth II of England and goes back through the kings of Wessex to one Sceaf, “a son of Noah born in the Ark,” and then to father Adam. The original text is on display in the British museum of History and dated as authentic. So evidence in genealogy also validates these mutation rates and YEC.
But this is not the only genealogical discovery, others have been found as well. One of these traces through Irish royalty back to one Tamar Tephi, a daughter of King Zedekiah, who was king of Judah when Lehi left Jerusalem in 600 B.C. Another traces back through one Anna, a daughter of Joseph of Arimathea, who was a kinsman of Christ and the one who provided the Savior’s burial place. There are also others.
All the time frames are perfectly in line with the Y.E.C model.
Ironic how all these timelines fit in a Y.E.C time frame, while completely missing the evolutionary one. yet the critic will gloss over this without a thought.
Cain got his wife?
When I got to the section entitled, “Cain and Abel, Sons of Adam,” I read,
After that [when God put a mark on Cain, (probably Vitiligo in my opinion), Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, to the east of Eden.
And later in the land of Nod, Cain took a wife and she gave birth to a son who was named Enoch.
This paraphrased account of Scripture highlights a very common misconception related to where Cain got his wife.
First, let’s read the actual words of Genesis 4:16–17, which The Golden Children’s Bible attempted to paraphrase:
Then Cain went out from the presence of the Lord and dwelt in the land of Nod on the east of Eden. And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. And he built a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son—Enoch.
The Bible does not say that Cain went to Nod and later found a wife there. Rather, the implication in Scripture is that he already had a wife when he went to Nod. The event that took place in Nod was that he “knew” his wife—had sexual relations with her—and she conceived and gave birth to a son.
If Cain didn’t marry someone living in the land of Nod, we still have the question, “Where did Cain get his wife?” or, “Whom did Cain marry?” Again, we need to look to Scripture for the answer. Genesis 5:4 makes it clear that they had multiple sons and daughters:
After he begot Seth, the days of Adam were eight hundred years; and he had sons and daughters.
In addition, Genesis 3:20 states,
And Adam called his wife’s name Eve, because she was the mother of all living.
Scripture is clear that every human being is descended from Adam and Eve.
Acts 17:26 states, “And He has made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the face of the earth, and has determined their preappointed times and the boundaries of their dwellings.”
- Not all of Adam's descendants are named in the Bible.
- Cain's age when he married is not given.
The Bible only follows 2 of Adams liniages in detail from start to end. Yet we know that Adam had many other kids. These other lineages were not as important because they do not lead to the theme of the Bible which is salvation and sin. This is why the Bible traces only the 2 lineages (Seth to Jesus and Cain to Tubal-cain).
When God curses Cain for his sin, Cain replies: “Today you are driving me from the land, and I will be hidden from your presence; I will be a restless wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me." (Genesis 4:14, NIV)
The phrase "whoever finds me" implies there were other people already besides Adam, Eve, and Cain. By the time Adam fathered his third son, Seth, a replacement for Abel, Adam was already 130 years old. Several generations had been born in that time.
Genesis 5:4 states: "After Seth was born, Adam lived 800 years and had other sons and daughters."
Here is something else I want to add. The word “Nod” literally translates as "fugitive or wanderer" in Hebrew. Bible scholars believe Nod was not a literal place, but a state of roaming, without roots or commitment that was East from Edens location.
Intermarriage Was expected and obviously Part of God's Plan at creation. This is why He would have obviously built in a large diverse enough genome to be compatible with such a thing till long after the Flood.
It was at this early point in human history, intermarriage with relatives was not only necessary but was sanctioned by God. Although Adam and Eve had been tainted by sin, genetically they were pure and their descendants would have been genetically pure for many generations.
Those marriage combinations would have paired the same dominant genes, resulting in healthy, normal children. Today, after thousands of years of mixed gene pools, a marriage between a brother and sister could result in recessive genes combining, producing abnormalities.
The same problem would have occurred after The Flood. All of the people would have descended from Ham, Shem, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and their respective wives. Following the Flood, God commanded them to be fruitful and multiply.
Much later, after the Jews had escaped slavery in Egypt, God handed down laws forbidding incest, or sex between close relatives. By then the human race had grown so much that such unions were no longer necessary and would be harmful.
A Young-Earth Creation Human Mitochondrial DNA “Clock”: Whole Mitochondrial Genome Mutation Rate Confirms D-Loop Results